Himachal literally means “Land of Snowy Mountains”.The state of Himachal Pradesh popularly called ‘Abode of Gods’, Devbhoomi, the Fruit bowl of India, the Apple State of India and Nature’s Paradise is nestled in the Western Himalayas between 30°22′ to 33°12’North latitude and 75°47′ to 79°04’East longitude. To the East it makes India’s border with Tibet: to the North lies the state of Jammu & Kashmir; Punjab to the West; Uttrakhand to the South-East and Haryana to the SouthWestSpread over an area of 55,673 km, the territory of Himachal Pradesh is mountainous with altitude varying from 350m(1,150ft) to 7000m(22,965ft) above the sea level. There is a general increase in elevation from West to East and from South to North. The geographical area of ‘ Himachal Pradesh (55,6738qkm) account for 1.7% of the total area of India (3,287,263 km). In terms of area, Himachal Pradesh is the 17th state of India.As per 2011 census the population of Himachal Pradesh . is 6,864,602 which constitute 0.57% of the total population of India(1,210,193,422). Population wise ‘it is placed 20th among the 28 States and 21st among States & Union Territories. National Capital Delhi is the only Union Territory to have a population greater than Himachal Pradesh.
Topographically, the territory of Himachal Pradesh from South to North can be divided into three zones.
HP GK Questions and Answers
- In which year Shimla was declared as the summer capital of British India by John Lawrence, Viceroy of India (1864 – 1869)?(A). 1862.
- Where is Allain Duhangan (192MW) Hydro Power Project Situated?(A). Spiti.
- Rampur town is located on the left bank of which river?(A). Satluj.
- Which is the State Animal of Himachal Pradesh?(A). Musk Deer.
(B). Snow Leopard.
Ans: Snow Leopard.
- According to 2011 census, Chamba(Lowest Literacy) has literacy rate.(A). 62.45%.
- How many domestic airports are there in the H.P. State?(A). 2.
- According to 211 census district with a largest urban population in H.P. is _(A). Kangra.
HP GK 2019 for HPSSSB, and HPPSC
1. The Lower Hills or Outer Himalayan Zone 350m(1,150ft) to
1,500m(4,920ft) . This .part of the western Himalayas which viels the state of Himachal Pradesh from the plains is known as the Shivalik Hills.Shivalik literally means the ‘Tresses of Shiva’ and to the ancient geographers Shivalik Hills were known as the ‘Mainak Parvat’. These hills comprise the districts of Bilaspur, Hamirpur, Kangra & Una and lower parts of the Mandi, Sirmour& Solan Districts. ‘
2. The Lesser or Inner Himalayas or the Mid-Himalayan Zone
1,500m (4,920 ft.)4,500m (14,765 ft.). In this zone falls the upper areas of the tehsils of Pachhad and Renuka in District Sirmour; Chachyot and Karsog tehSils of District Mandi; upper parts of Kangra and Palampur tehsils of District Kangra; upper Shimla Hills and upper parts of the Churah tehsil of District Chamba. This zone comprises two mountain Ranges viz. Dhauladhar and Pir Panjal.
a) Dhauladhar Mountain Range 4,550 m (14,927 ft.)
Dhauladhar, which means the white peak, is the outermost portion of the Lesser Himalayas.lt branches off from the Great Himalayan range near Badrinath in Uttrakhand. Dhauladhar is also known as ‘Maulak Parvat’and it lies mainly in the District Kangra.
b) Pir Panjal Mountain Range -4,000m (13, 123ft)-5,000m(16,404ft)
Pir Panjal range which falls mainly in District Chamba is the largest range in the Lesser or inner Himalayas bifurcates from the Great Himalayan range near the bank of the river Sutlej forming the water-parting between the river Chenab on the one side and the Beas & Ravi rivers on the other. It merges with Shrikhand, a mid-Himalayan range to the east of Kullu.
3. The ‘Greater Himalayas or Alpine Zone – 4,500m(14,765ft) – 7,000m(22,965ft)
The Greater Himalayan range runs along the eastern boundary of the state and is cut across by the river Sutlej.The range separates the drainage of river Spiti from that of the Beas.The famous ” Zaskar range of this zone is the easternmost range and separates the Kinnaur and Spiti from Tibet. Shilla (7026m)the highest mountain peak in the state lies in the Zaskar range in District KinnaurJn this zone falls the District Kinnaur, Pangi tehsil of District Chamba and some areas of District Lahaul-Spiti.
Himachal, Pradesh came’into being as a Centrally administered Chief Commissioner‘s Province on April 15′ 1948. It was made by integrating ‘ 26 Shimla hill States and 4 Punjab hill states (a total of 30 erstwhile Princely States) with its headquarter in the historic building of British India Foreign Office at Shimla. At that time there were four districts viz
Chamba, Mahasu, Mandi, and Sirmour, with an area of 27018 sq km and the population was 9, 35, 000. Sh. N.C Mehta was appointed as the first Chief ~Commissioner and E. P Moon as the first vice-chief Commissioner. The Chief Commissioner was aided and advised in the discharge of his functions by an Advisory Council consisting of Nine members, three of Whom represented the erstwhile princely states and six being public representatives.
Vide Section 3 of the Govt. of India Part ‘C’ states Act, 1951 passed in September 1951 Himachal Pradesh was designated as a Part ‘C’ state. Chief Commissioner was replaced by Lieutenant Governor.
Himachal Pradesh General Knowledge 2019
On March I, 1952 Major General Himmat Singh was appointed as the first Lt. Governor of the state. ‘
First general election to the 36 membered H.P. Legislative Assembly was held in November 1951. Congress emerged as the majority party with 24 seats. On March 24, 1952. Dr. Y.S Parmar became first Chief Minister of Himachal Pradesh. ‘
On July I, 1954 Part ‘0’ state Bilaspur was merged with Himachal Pradesh. It became the 5th district of Himachal Pradesh and the area of the state increased to 28185 sq km. The strength of Legislative Assembly also raised to 41.
On December 29, 1953, the States Reorganization Commission was appointed under the Chairmanship of Justice Fazil Ali, and its two members were Dr. K.M. Pannikar and HM. Kunjru. The Commission recommended the merger of Himachal Pradesh with Punjab by a majority verdict of two against one vote. it was the Commission’s Chairman Faizal Ali, who desired HP. to be kept separate for development purposes for some years. Finally, with the pioneering efforts of Dr. Y.S. Parmar, Himachal Pradesh became the Union Territory on November 1, 1956, & was placed under an administrator designated as Lt. Governor. Sh. Bajrang Bahadur Singh was appointed as the Lt. Governor. Himachal Pradesh remained as Union Territory from November 1, 1956, to January 25, 1971.
The formation of Union Territory led to the abolition of Legislative Assembly and under the Union Territories Act, 41 membered Territorial Council was set-up in December 1956.
In May-June 1957, the election was held for theTerriton’al Council and Congress won the majority. On August 15, 1957, Thakur Karam Singh of Mandi was elected as the Chairman of the Territorial Council.
On May 1, 1960 ‘Chinni’ tehsil of Mahasu District named as IGnnaur was carved out as 6″‘district of HP. Under the Union territories. 1963. H.P.Territorial Council was converted into the Legislative Assembly. The strength of the Assembly was fixed at 43 including 2 nominated ‘members.With this democratic set up was restored and popular Ministry again installed. On July 1, 1963. Dr. Y.S. Parmar became the Chief Minister of Himachal Pradesh for the second time. The Assembly held its first sitting from October 1, 1963. Continuity of the Assembly is considered this date hence its silver jubilee was celebrated in the year 1988.
With the reorganization of Punjab Hills Areas on November 1, 1966, four more Districts of Kangra, Kullu, Lahaul-Spiti, Shimla along with the Nalagarh area of Ambala District, and parts of Una tehsil of Hoshiarpur District and Dalhousie and Bakloh of Gurdaspur District, were integrated, with Himachal Pradesh. Now the total geographical area of Himachal Pradesh increased by 96% to 55, 673 km and the number of districts increased from six to ten. With the merger of new areas into Himachal Pradesh, the number of members in the Vidhan Sabha rose to 56 including 2 nominated. The strength of the house was further raised to 63 (60 elected and 3 nominated) after section 24 (3) of Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966 came into force in 1967. In 1967 elections were held for 63 membered LegislativeAssembly and Congress emerged as the leading party with 37 seats. Dr. Y.S. Parmar became the Chief Minister of HR for the third time.
On Jan 24, 1968, Himachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly passed a unanimous resolution demanding the status of full-fledged State for Himachal Pradesh.
On July 31, 1970, the bill for the grant of statehood Was introduced in the Union Parliament. Parliament of India passed the bill on December 18, 1970.
On Jan 25, 1971, first woman Prime Minister of India Mrs. Indira Gandhi on Girija Maidan (now known \as The Ridge) in Shimla, inaugurated the Himachal Pradesh as the 18Fh state of the Union of India. Areawise it became the 14th state of India. Sh. S.Chakarvarti was appointed as the first Governor of Himachal Pradesh.
On September 1, 1972, Hamirpur and Una Districts were carved out of the Kangra District, while Shimla and Mahasu were reorganized to Shimla and Solan Districts. Now the number of districts in HP. raised from ten to twelve viz Bilaspur, Chamba, Hamirpur, Kangra. Kinnaur, Kullu, Lahaul-Spiti, Mandi, Shimla, Sirmaur, Solan and Una. After delimitation ofAssemny seats in the year 1971 -72, the number of Members of the Assembly now stands at 68.